Information Source for Alzheimer's Disease

The occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is not a normal development in the aging process. Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by a gradual loss of memory, decline in the ability to perform routine tasks, disorientation, difficulty in learning, loss of language skills, impaired judgment and ability to plan, and personality changes. Over time, these changes become so severe that they interfere with an individual’s daily functioning, resulting eventually in death. While the disease can last from 3 to 20 years after the onset of symptoms, the average duration is 8 years.

Alzheimer’s disease affects as many as 4 million Americans. Most people diagnosed with AD are older than 65. However, it is possible for the disease to occur in people in their 40’s and 50’s. Recent research has shown links between some genes and AD, but in about 90% of cases, there is no clear genetic link.

Symptoms of Alzheimer’s

Alzheimer’s disease manifests itself slowly and subtly, with the first early stage dementia symptoms often appearing to be mild forgetfulness. From time to time, we all forget where we have put our keys, but people with early stage AD may notice that they tend to forget things more often. They may have trouble remembering recent events, names of familiar people or things. While these symptoms are bothersome, they are usually not serious enough to cause alarm. As the disease advances, the symptoms become serious enough to cause people with AD or their family members to recognize that things are not right and that help is needed. As the disease progresses further, people with AD eventually forget how to do simple tasks like brushing their teeth, or combing their hair. They begin to have problems speaking, understanding, reading or writing. Later on, people with AD may become anxious or aggressive and may wander away from home. Eventually, patients may need total care.

Diagnosis for Alzheimer’s

Early and careful evaluation is important, because many conditions, including some that are treatable or reversible, may cause dementia-like symptoms. Examples of such treatable medical conditions are depression, nutritional deficiencies, adverse drug interactions, and metabolic changes.

There is no single test to identify AD. A comprehensive exam should be conducted by your physician including a complete health history and physical exam, neurological and mental status assessments, as well as other lab tests (like chest x-rays and blood tests). These will help rule out any other diseases which may look like Alzheimer’s but are not. Physicians are now able to accurately diagnose 80 - 90% of people who show symptoms of AD. A definitive diagnosis is possible, however, only through the examination of brain tissue at autopsy.

Treatment & Care for Alzheimer’s

While there is no known cure for AD, scientists have found a few medications which may help control some of the symptoms. People with AD must work closely with their doctor to determine which drugs and activities are best for them because reaction to medications varies for each person. As researchers continue to learn more about the disease, new possibilities arise. Information about cutting-edge treatments and new scientific discoveries is available from physicians and the sources listed below.

Family Caregivers

Research has also created promising new approaches for working with persons who have Alzheimer’s and their caregivers. Experience has taught families and caregivers new behavioral approaches that encourage greater independence and reduce disturbing behavior. Through the work of the 15 state grantees in the Alzheimer’s Disease Demonstration Grant program now funded by the Administration on Aging (AoA), new dementia-specific approaches to early identification, treatment, and community-based care have been developed. These projects have been especially successful in working with low-income, ethnic minority and rural families.

What Causes Alzheimers

Researches know that Alzheimer's disease directly affects the brain cell through a long and drawn out process that may take years before it is noticed by your loved ones. Today, a few risk factors have been identified as ones that may increase a person's chances of developing Alzheimers disease. Unfortunately, the researchers have not been able to identify any reason as to why the brain cells start to deteriorate.

Alzheimer's Disease Facts

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an irreversible, progressive brain disease that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, and eventually even the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. In most people with AD, symptoms first appear after age 60.

AD is the most common cause of dementia among older people. Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning—thinking, remembering, and reasoning—to such an extent that it interferes with a person’s daily life and activities. According to recent estimates, as many as 2.4 to 4.5 million Americans are living with AD.

AD is named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer. In 1906, Dr. Alzheimer noticed changes in the brain tissue of a woman who had died of an unusual mental illness. Her symptoms included memory loss, language problems, and unpredictable behavior. After she died, he examined her brain and found many abnormal clumps (now called amyloid plaques) and tangled bundles of fibers (now called neurofibrillary tangles). Plaques and tangles in the brain are two of the main features of AD. The third is the loss of connections between nerve cells (neurons) in the brain.

Changes in the Brain in AD

Although we still don’t know what starts the AD process, we do know that damage to the brain begins as many as 10 to 20 years before any problems are evident. Tangles begin to develop deep in the brain, in an area called the entorhinal cortex, and plaques form in other areas. As more and more plaques and tangles form in particular brain areas, healthy neurons begin to work less efficiently. Then, they lose their ability to function and communicate with each other, and eventually they die. This damaging process spreads to a nearby structure, called the hippocampus, which is essential in forming memories. As the death of neurons increases, affected brain regions begin to shrink. By the final stage of AD, damage is widespread and brain tissue has shrunk significantly.

Very Early Signs and Symptoms

Memory problems are one of the first signs of AD. Some people with memory problems have a condition called amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). People with this condition have more memory problems than normal for people their age, but their symptoms are not as severe as those with AD. More people with MCI, compared with those without MCI, go on to develop AD.

Other changes may also signal the very early stages of AD. For example, recent research has found links between some movement difficulties and MCI. Researchers also have seen links between some problems with the sense of smell and cognitive problems. Brain imaging and bio marker studies of people with MCI and those with a family history of AD are beginning to detect early changes in the brain like those seen in AD. These findings will need to be confirmed by other studies but appear promising. Such findings offer hope that some day, we may have tools that could help detect AD early, track the course of the disease, and monitor response to treatments.

Mild AD

As AD progresses, memory loss continues and changes in other cognitive abilities appear. Problems can include getting lost, trouble handling money and paying bills, repeating questions, taking longer to complete normal daily tasks, poor judgment, and mood and personality changes. People often are first diagnosed in this stage.

Moderate AD

In this stage, damage occurs in areas of the brain that control language, reasoning, sensory processing, and conscious thought. Memory loss and confusion increase, and people begin to have problems recognizing family and friends. They may be unable to learn new things, carry out tasks that involve multiple steps (such as getting dressed), or cope with new situations. They may have hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia, and may behave impulsively.

Severe AD

By the final stage, plaques and tangles have spread throughout the brain and brain tissue has shrunk significantly. People with severe AD cannot communicate and are completely dependent on others for their care. Near the end, the person may be in bed most or all of the time as the body shuts down.

What Causes AD

Scientists don’t yet fully understand what causes AD, but it is clear that it develops because of a complex series of events that take place in the brain over a long period of time. It is likely that the causes include genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Because people differ in their genetic make-up and lifestyle, the importance of these factors for preventing or delaying AD differs from person to person.

The Basics of AD

Scientists are conducting studies to learn more about plaques, tangles, and other features of AD. They can now visualize plaques by imaging the brains of living individuals. They are also exploring the very earliest steps in the disease process. Findings from these studies will help them understand the causes of AD.

One of the great mysteries of AD is why it largely strikes older adults. Research on how the brain changes normally with age is shedding light on this question. For example, scientists are learning how age-related changes in the brain may harm neurons and contribute to AD damage. These age-related changes include inflammation and the production of unstable molecules called free radicals.


In a very few families, people develop AD in their 30s, 40s, and 50s. These people have a mutation, or permanent change, in one of three genes that they inherited from a parent. We know that these gene mutations cause AD in these “early-onset” familial cases.

However, most people with AD have “late-onset” AD, which usually develops after age 60. Many studies have linked a gene called APOE to late-onset AD. This gene has several forms. One of them, APOE ε4, increases a person’s risk of getting the disease. About 40 percent of all people who develop late-onset AD carry this gene. However, carrying the APOE ε4 form of the gene does not necessarily mean that a person will develop AD, and people carrying no APOE ε4 forms can also develop AD.

Lifestyle Factors

A nutritious diet, exercise, social engagement, and mentally stimulating pursuits can all help people stay healthy. New research suggests the possibility that these factors also might help to reduce the risk of cognitive decline and AD. Scientists are investigating associations between cognitive decline and heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity. Understanding these relationships and testing them in clinical trials will help us understand whether reducing risk factors for these diseases may help with AD as well.

How AD Is Diagnosed

AD can be definitively diagnosed only after death by linking clinical course with an examination of brain tissue and pathology in an autopsy. But doctors now have several methods and tools to help them determine fairly accurately whether a person who is having memory problems has “possible AD” (the symptoms may be due to another cause) or “probable AD” (no other cause for the symptoms can be found). To diagnose AD, doctors:

These tests may be repeated to give doctors information about how the person’s memory is changing over time.

Early diagnosis is beneficial for several reasons. Having an early diagnosis and starting treatment in the early stages of the disease can help preserve function for months to years, even though the underlying AD process cannot be changed. Having an early diagnosis also helps families plan for the future, make living arrangements, take care of financial and legal matters, and develop support networks.

In addition, an early diagnosis can provide greater opportunities for people to get involved in clinical trials. In a clinical trial, scientists test drugs or treatments to see which are most effective and for whom they work best. (See the box, below, for more information.)

Participating in Clinical Trials

People with AD, those with MCI, those with a family history of AD, and healthy people with no memory problems and no family history of AD may be able to take part in clinical trials. Study volunteers help scientists learn about the brain in healthy aging as well as what happens in AD. Results of AD clinical trials are used to improve prevention and treatment approaches. Participating in clinical trials is an effective way to help in the fight against AD.

NIA, which is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), leads the Federal Government’s research efforts on AD. NIA-supported Alzheimer’s Disease Centers located throughout the United States conduct many clinical trials and carry out a wide range of research, including studies of the causes, diagnosis, and management of AD. NIA also sponsors the Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study (ADCS), a consortium of leading AD researchers throughout the U.S. and Canada who conduct clinical trials on promising AD treatments.

How AD Is Treated

AD is a complex disease, and no single “magic bullet” is likely to prevent or cure it. That’s why current treatments focus on several different aspects, including helping people maintain mental function; managing behavioral symptoms; and slowing, delaying, or preventing AD.

Helping People with AD Maintain Mental Function

Four medications are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat AD. Donepezil (Aricept®), rivastigmine (Exelon®), and galantamine (Razadyne®) are used to treat mild to moderate AD (donepezil can be used for severe AD as well). Memantine (Namenda®) is used to treat moderate to severe AD. These drugs work by regulating neurotransmitters (the chemicals that transmit messages between neurons). They may help maintain thinking, memory, and speaking skills, and help with certain behavioral problems. However, these drugs don’t change the underlying disease process and may help only for a few months to a few years.

Managing Behavioral Symptoms

Common behavioral symptoms of AD include sleeplessness, agitation, wandering, anxiety, anger, and depression. Scientists are learning why these symptoms occur and are studying new treatments—drug and non-drug—to manage them. Treating behavioral symptoms often makes people with AD more comfortable and makes their care easier for caregivers.

Slowing, Delaying, or Preventing AD

AD research has developed to a point where scientists can look beyond treating symptoms to think about addressing the underlying disease process. In ongoing AD clinical trials, scientists are looking at many possible interventions, such as cardiovascular treatments, antioxidants, immunization therapy, cognitive training, and physical activity.

Supporting Families and Caregivers

Caring for a person with AD can have high physical, emotional, and financial costs. The demands of day-to-day care, changing family roles, and difficult decisions about placement in a care facility can be hard to handle. Researchers are learning a lot about AD care giving, and studies are helping experts develop new ways to support caregivers.

Becoming well-informed about AD is one important long-term strategy. Programs that teach families about the various stages of AD and about flexible and practical strategies for dealing with difficult caregiving situations provide vital help to those who care for people with AD.

Developing good coping skills and a strong support network of family and friends also are important ways that caregivers can help themselves handle the stresses of caring for a loved one with AD. For example, staying physically active provides physical and emotional benefits. Some AD caregivers have found that participating in an AD support group is a critical lifeline. These support groups allow caregivers to find respite, express concerns, share experiences, get tips, and receive emotional comfort. The Alzheimer’s Association, Alzheimer’s Disease Centers, and many other organizations sponsor in-person and online AD support groups across the country. There are a growing number of groups for people in the early stage of AD and their families. Support networks can be especially valuable when caregivers face the difficult decision of whether and when to place a loved one in a nursing home.

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